Zimbabwe: Household Energy Sector Governace
Household Energy Demand and Use
B Household Energy Supply
C Household Energy Sector Governace
D Household Energy Information
E Household Energy Case Studies
In Zimbabwe, energy project planning is done centrally at the Ministry .It also monitors energy projects and programmes. . However, in Zimbabwe there is no institutional framework at local level to monitor energy projects and programmes, after they have been commissioned (Mapako 2001).
There are several governmental institutions that are responsible for environmental affaires in Zimbabwe: the Ministry of Environment & Tourism, the Ministry of Lands and Water Resources, the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare, the Ministry of Energy and Power Development as well as the Ministry of Local Government and the Ministry of Labour .
Concerning forests matters and natural resources the Ministry of Environment and Tourism has to take responsibility through its organs: the Forestry Commission, the Department of Natural Resources, the Natural Resource Board and the Department of Parks and Wildlife. The Forestry Commission is especially concerned with firewood.
Whereas the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare is concerned with health matters.
The utility charges a 5 % levy towards the capital development fund. Electricity consumers also pay 1 % towards the rural electrification. So far a uniform national tariff is applied.
For rural areas the government followed a selective process of electrifying rural business centers. The Rural Electrification Project (RE) in Zimbabwe aims at addressing the energy problems of the rural population thereby stimulates new and diversified economic growth in rural areas. It also creates employment and reduces rural-urban migration. The Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority (ZESA) in conjunction with the government have taken the initiative to promote rural electrification. The project was initiated in the early '80s. By 1984, 23 rural growth points had electricity at a total cost of Z$ 5.8milion. Rural communities are encouraged to and a welcome to initiate electrification projects. There are three financing schemes available namely: Rural Institutions Electrification Revolving Fund, Rural Electricity Guarantee Fund and Funds Matching Scheme.
Operational issues addressed to overcome low rate of electrification included: introduction of the Compact Distribution Board (CDB) to lower cost of internal wiring, introduction of the prepayment meter that would enable customers to pay for electricity when they can afford.
There are subsidies on kerosene because it is mostly used by the poor. However, the subsidies do not seem to have any impact on the intended users (Mapako 2001).