Zambia: Household Energy Demand and Use
Household Energy Demand and Use
B Household Energy Supply
C Household Energy Sector Governace
D Household Energy Information
The Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources is responsible for the formulation of policy on forestry and the environment. The Ministry deals with forestry management and conservation and works hand in hand with the Ministry of Energy on issues of biomass especially on the energy supply side. Health aspects are the responsibility of the Ministry of Health.
Generation and distribution of electricity in Zambia is done by ZESCO, which is a public electricity utility. ZESCO enjoys monopoly in the electricity sector. Kariba North Bank Company, a power generating entity, has been separated from ZESCO and is operating as an Independent Power Producer (IPP). The government still owns the IPP.
However, the government does not manage firewood supply. Rather communities collect firewood or buy firewood from an unregulated market. Sources of wood include: Natural forests, village woodlots, public woodlands, and smallholder farms. Whereas people in rural areas depend on the natural forest resources for their wood supplies, those in urban areas rely on wood vendors. Wood is cut from natural forests and transported by trucks to urban areas.
Charcoal production, trade and use is an industry in excess of ?100 Million per annum in Zambia. Studies done in 1995 put the figure at $49 Million and estimated consumption figures to increase from 0.7 Million tonnes in 1985 to 0.9 Million tonnes in the year 2000. The industry is not managed by any government structure. The industry is in the hands of the informal sector where the government has very limited control.
The Ministry of Energy and Water Development, through the private sector, are responsible for the availability of kerosene in the country. LPG is commercially available at BOC Gases and other gas companies in Zambia.The government arranges for the importation of spiked crude oil, which is refined in Ndola at the INDENI Refinery, and kerosene and LPG are two of the finished products. There is a fairly well established kerosene distribution network that the oil marketing companies have established, but the structure for the supply of LPG has not been adequately developed.
- Increase urban electricity access from 48% in 1998 to 70% by 2010
- Increase rural electricity access from 2%in 1998 to 15% by 2010
- Reduce household charcoal consumption by 30,000 tonnes annually
- Increase the number of households with solar home systems from 400 in2002 to 20,000 by 2010.
- Promote increased use of solar energy in rural schools and rural health centres
- Find a viable alternative to charcoal as an urban household fuel
The government is running a rural electrification project, which aims at extending the supply of electricity in rural areas. The funds are generated from a levy charged on every electricity unit billed. The project has not been successful because not all the funds meant for rural electrification are deposited in the rural electrification fund. However, even if all the funds were used on rural electrification, the funds would not be adequate to increase the national electrification rate from 20% to 35% by the year 2010 as targeted by government.
The project has concentrated on extending the national grid, and this has disadvantaged those living far from the grid. To attract more funds, the government is planning to set up a Rural Electrification Agency, which will be managed by independent management and will promote private sector participation. It is hoped that some donors will finance some of the projects
The problem is further exacerbated by electricity becoming expensive .This is because the value of the local currency against the dollar is a variable in the tariff setting formula. This is as a result of restructuring of the electricity market, which has compelled government to stop, subsidising the tariffs.
Fuel substitution efforts by the government were made for kerosene use for cooking. The government, through cross subsidies, has promoted this through the sale of petroleum products. However there has been no deliberate policy by government to promote LPG as a fuel substitute for charcoal and wood.
As with other petroleum products, distribution of LPG is formalised due to the need for safety precautions. This requires the few LPG distributors and retailers to have licences before they are allowed to sell LPG.
There have been individual efforts for some years to promote the use of biogas, solar home systems, and small hydro. These efforts have been targeted at remote rural areas, which are not likely to be reached by grid electricity in the medium to long term. Recently, new and more organised renewable energy programmes are being initiated by the Government with the support of several donors. To date, however, there have been no government programmes on low-smoke fuels.