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"Majiko" stove

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Location, continent:
Africa
Location, country:
Kenya

Stove information

Model: Improved
Application: Households
Type of stove: Gasifier
Portable
Produces biochar
Fuel: Branches
Briquettes
Dung cakes
Rice husk
Saw dust
Twigs
Wood

Construction

Materials: Bricks
Designer: P C Bhardwaj of Appropriate Energy Enterprises has been designing, making and selling steel cooking stoves since 1984.
Construction method: The inventor described the stove as follows:
"It has inbuilt water heating and is divided into independently replaceable five components. These are Base, Gasifier, Steamer, Grate and the Water Storage Tank. This stove proved to be extremely efficient and for next two years no changes were made. It has the following advantages:

* The surrounding temperature did not go beyond 50-60°C.
* The base heat was utilised for heating about 120 litres of water through thermo-syphon system, without any extra usage of fuel.
* The side wall chamber heat, which is normally cladded with clay liner to stop the heat from being wasted, was utilised for gasification of biomass.
* The heat which escaped from the sides of the cooking pan, at the top of the stove, was partially utilised for producing steam. The steam was introduced into the burner to provide extra oxygen needed to burn the gas.
* The gasifier could be quickly removed from the fire, without spilling the charcoal outside. This charcoal could be utilised, by putting the steamer on top of it, for slow fire cooking, short meal cooking or roasting of meat, potatoes or maize.


The gasifies that weighed about 12kg, had to be physically lifted for filling and emptying, which was quite cumbersome. The thickness of the burner and liner needed to be increased, for enhancing the life span, but it was not possible, because it would have become too heavy to be used by average cook. It also created packing problems for export purposes.

The latest model in this series has been modified to overcome these short comings. The water storage tank has been redesigned, so that all the components of the stove can be packed into it for transportation. The steamer has been incorporated in the gasifier thus avoiding the use of rubber hose and other connections. The pot-rest is removable, and is designed to go over the base, when gasifier is removed, for slow and short span cooking. The gasifier need not be lifted for filling and emptying.

It is mounted on a trolley, that has two locking devices, which makes it stable for cooking. Also eliminates the need of physical lifting, it can be pushed in and pulled out from the base. The gasifier has two openings placed at 180°C. Once the locking devices are removed, the gasifier can be rotated for removal of the biomass. Filling is also equally easy.

"Due to popular demand, four types of stove for low and middle income groups have been designed. The main fuel for these stoves remains to be waste biomass, which is subjected to partial pyrolysis and partial direct burning. Due to direct burning, though there is no smoke, but the pans become stained. The stoves are so economical that a bag of good quality charcoal can last for 6-8 weeks to cook meals for 6-8 persons.

Distribution

Availability: Commercially available
Start date: Fri 12 of Nov., 2010

Performance

Efficiency testing method and who did it: a. Extremely energy efficient, utilises waste as main fuel, hence saves 80-85% charcoal when compared to any stove using charcoal or wood fuel.

b. It has an efficiency of over 27% when even the specific consumption of the biomass is taken into account.

c. Has a well spread broad flame with a very low emmision content, which is well below the human tolerance level.
Because of large even flame, cooking is faster.

d. There is no element of environment pollution.

e. Surrounding temperatures are low thus comfortable and conducive for cook.

f. Easy to handle.

g. It produces the bye-product of hot water. Water storage tank can be installed at a higher place outside the kitchen. Water can be connected to sinks, etc. for regular supply.

h. Gasifier has thick cast iron liner which has a long life span and cast iron burner tubes are easily replaceable.

i. It can do all types of cooking, including boiling, frying and roasting.

j. It is convenient to use because of the trolley which eliminates the need of physical lifting of pans or transferring of cooked food.

k. It is priced in such a way that after a year it would pay its installation cost by saving fuel.

It has following disadvantages:

a. It needs some care in handling and demands regular maintenance, because of sophistication of design and use of two types of fuel.

b. It attains a constant high temperature within 35 minutes of lighting. This can only be reduced by introduction of baffle plates, which results in drop in efficiency. However, after about 1 1/2 hour, if fresh charcoal is not added, flame can be controlled for slow and short cooking.

c. Installation cost is higher than all other stoves."

Efficiency: 27%

Contact details

Address: P C Bhardwaj of Appropriate Energy Enterprises Ltd. P O Box 11927, Nairobi, Kenya.


Tags: AppropriateEnergyStoves   
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Last edited by Miriam Hansen , based on work by raffaella , Mauro Vanzini and Nelson Ko .
Page last modified on Wednesday 15 of December, 2010 14:21:56 GMT. @HEDON: FQAP

  • A practitioner's journal on household energy, stoves and poverty reduction.


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