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GTZ News
Authors: Lisa Feldmann Agnes Klingshirn
Issue 57: Household Dynamics

Impacts of stove project in Kenya

The Kenyan stove project (carried out in Transmara, Western and Central Clusters) started in 2006. It is integrated into the GTZ programme for Private Sector Development in Agriculture (PSDA) and part of the ongoing German/Dutch collaboration within the Programme “Energising Development” (EnDev). The stove types promoted included the Jiko Kisasa with a firewood saving potential of 40% and the Rocket Mud Stove (RMS), which has a saving potential of 60%. Prices for households vary from 100 and 250 Ksh for Jiko Kisasa and from 200 and 250 Ksh for the one pot-RMS and from 250 to 500 Ksh for the two pot-RMS.

An impact assessment study was conducted in 2007 to assess what impacts have been realized from the two years of stove work in the current project. For this, 500 households were interviewed with standardised questionnaires, as well as 22 stove dealers and 16 restaurant owners. Six focus group discussions were conducted with women.

Higher stove adoption rate in households

Households using improved cooking stoves have increased from about 5% (2006) to 38% (2007). The main objective of the stove project was to provide 738,450 people with improved household stoves by June 2009. This objective has been largely met: 378,707 households possess an efficient stove, providing 1,893,538 people with improved cooking energy by June 2009 (household multiplied by 5, which is the average family size). A large variety of stoves were found in the interviewed households. Only 21% of ICS households use the three-stone-fire daily. This indicates that ICS households seem to abandon the traditional fireplace in favour of the improved stove in everyday cooking.

Income generation

Stove production has become a real business with an average monthly production of 337 Jiko Kisasa liners per producer and an average monthly income of 10,000 to 20,000 Ksh (about 100€ to 200€). Capacity building has been a key factor in embedding entrepreneurship skills to various players to undertake stove activities with a business orientation. Income generation remains the major motivation for most players. One third of them make their living out of stove business as a primary source of income. In any case, most of the stove dealers consider stove activity as an important contribution to their income, often making up more than half of the total household budget. The income enables them to pay for hospital bills and their children’s education. Others invest in milk cows, chicken, stocking of JK liners etc

Impacts on women users of ICS

According to the interviewed women improved cooking stoves influence daily life in a positive way. Time gained due to fast cooking and money saved for firewood impact most of the poverty criteria. The surplus in time was used for farming, income generating activities, girls’ education and women’s participation in community life. The money gained was used for items of daily need. Health improvements due to reduced smoke emissions and reduction of accidental burns of children were also considered as an improvement of the living conditions.

Benefits for restaurants

Fuelwood savings, fast cooking and money savings are the most important advantages cited by almost all restaurant owners. For big restaurants, the smoke reduction is also considered very important. Small restaurants save an average of 100 Ksh per day for fuelwood while big restaurants save about 600 Ksh per day. Accordingly, the pay-off period for a Rocket stove with two pots and a market price of 10,000 Ksh is about six to nine weeks. A firewood Jiko Kisasa with one pot hole (300 Ksh) or two pot holes (600 Ksh) will be paid off after a couple of days.

The study can be accessed at: www.gtz.de/hera

Fig 1: Woman cooking on a Jiko Kisasa

HERA – new mandate

Since December 2008 GTZ’s former household energy programme HERA has a new mandate: poverty oriented basic energy services. The aim of the new programme is to promote innovative concepts for improving basic energy access for households, social institutions and small enterprises. Besides cooking energy, the focus of HERA will now also be on energy services for lighting, heating, electric appliances, etc for low income groups. HERA is carried out on behalf of the German Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development.

Launch – GTZ HERA Cooking Energy Compendium now available on HEDON

The Cooking Energy Compendium has been compiled and written by GTZ HERA and with the support and input of various projects. It draws on experiences and examples of various cooking energy projects in order to support the need for large-scale dissemination. The compendium focuses on stove dissemination, alternative fuels and stoves as well as on the supply side. Policy recommendations and the role cooking energy is playing on the international agenda complete the compendium. Various links to websites, publications and supportive material from cooking energy projects is given as well.

While a CD containing the compendium was launched by GTZ HERA in December 2008, we are happy to announce its online availability on HEDON:

If you are interested in receiving a copy of the CD please contact: lisa.feldmann@gtz.de

Peru: Campaign for improved stove dissemination

In June 2009, the Peruvian Prime Minister Yehude Simon launched the "half a million stoves for a Peru without smoke" campaign in Lima. The alliance of national social programmes, regional and municipal governments as well as GTZ and WHO/PAHO and interested NGOs, intends to disseminate 500,000 stoves within the next two years. First successes of the campaign are a decree that allows publics funds to be spent on stoves as well substantial financial commitments of regional governments to support the campaign. All stove models to be part of the campaign are being tested for Indoor Air Pollution (IAP), time and fuel consumption and safety issues by a laboratory, which is ascribed to the Ministry for Construction. The Peruvian Energising Development project will support the campaign with training, capacity development, quality assessment, technological development, cooperation management and monitoring. Energising Development Peru is part of the Dutch-German Energy Partnership and implemented by GTZ.

Figure 2: Women presenting improved stove at the launch of the campaign

Solar Lanterns Test: Shades of Light

Around two billion people worldwide lack access to modern energy and have to resort to candles or kerosene for basic lighting services. This results either in substantial costs for poor households or they have to rely on cheap kerosene lanterns, which are a source of harmful emissions and fire hazards. The introduction of solar lanterns, using CFL or LED as a lighting source, could provide a solution. In the last five years, there has been a surge of new products in the segment of small PV applications. However, there is a vast difference in quality and price of those systems and many of the new products are not adapted to the real life conditions of rural areas in developing countries.

GTZ in cooperation with the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE) has initiated a new series of laboratory tests with the aim to increase transparency into this upcoming, dynamic market. A new, cost efficient testing procedure has been developed and 12 lantern types were comparatively tested in 2008. Five systems were sorted out because of obvious quality problems after the first test level. The remaining seven systems entered the more detailed second level tests, which included technical tests of the light source and controller.
The main test results are that (i) few solar lanterns achieve an acceptable quality level, and (ii) even the better ones could be improved easily by addressing 1-2 relatively simple design recommendations. The initial costs for the few suitable systems are still too expensive for poor customers. However, it is expected that prices will drop to below 50% of 2008 values over the next few years. This will make solar lanterns clearly more economical than kerosene lamps. As they offer higher quality lighting, better handling, environmental advantages and sometimes radio or mobile phone charging, massive market growth can be expected in the near future.

Download: http://www.gtz.de/en/themen/umwelt-infrastruktur/energie/4552.htm

Figure 3: Tested solar lanterns (Photo: Jürgen Gocke, Fraunhofer ISE)

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Last edited by Miriam Hansen .
Page last modified on Thursday 19 of August, 2010 09:02:30 GMT. @HEDON: HWRB

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